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Top Machine Learning Techniques and Their Definitions

When one technology replaces another, it’s not easy to accurately ascertain how the new technology would impact our lives. With so much buzz around the modern applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Data Science, it becomes difficult to track the developments of these technologies. Machine Learning, in particular, has undergone a remarkable evolution in recent years. Many Machine Learning (ML) techniques have come in the foreground recently, most of which go beyond the traditionally simple classifications of this highly scientific Data Science specialization.

Read More: Beyond RPA And Cognitive Document Automation: Intelligent Automation At Scale

Let’s point out the top ML techniques that the industry leaders and investors are keenly following, their definition, and commercial application.

#1 Perceptual Learning

Perceptual Learning is the scientific technique of enabling AI ML algorithms with better perception abilities to categorize and differentiate spatial and temporal patterns in the physical world.

For humans, Perceptual Learning is mostly instinctive and condition-driven. It means humans learn perceptual skills without actual awareness. In the case of machines, these learning skills are mapped implicitly using sensors, mechanoreceptors, and connected intelligent machines.

#2 Automated Machine Learning

Most AI ML engineering companies boast of developing and delivering AI ML models that run on an automated platform. They openly challenge the presence and need for a Data Scientist in the Engineering process.

Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) is defined as the fully automating the entire process of Machine Learning model development right up till the process of its application.

AutoML enables companies to leverage AI ML models in an automated environment without truly seeking the involvement and supervision of Data Scientists, AI Engineers or Analysts.

Google, Baidu, IBM, Amazon, H2O, and a bunch of other technology-innovation companies already offer a host of AutoML environment for many commercial applications. These applications have swept into every possible business in every industry, including in Healthcare, Manufacturing, FinTech, Marketing and Sales, Retail, Sports and more.

#3 Bayesian Machine Learning

Bayesian Machine Learning is a unique specialization within AI ML projects that leverage statistical models along with Data Science techniques. Any ML technique that uses the Bayes Theorem and Bayesian statistical modeling approach in Machine Learning fall under the purview of Bayesian Machine Learning.

The contemporary applications of Bayesian ML involves the use of open-source coding platform – Python. Unique applications include –

  • Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)
  • Bayes Optimal Classifier
  • Bayes Theorem for AI ML Modeling Hypotheses
  • Bayesian Belief Networks
  • Joint, Marginal, and Conditional Probability

#4 Meta-Learning

A good ML program would be expected to ‘perpetually learn’ to perform a set of complex tasks. This learning mechanism is understood from the specialized branch of AI ML techniques, called Meta-Learning.

The industry-wide definition for Meta-Learning is the ‘ability to learn and generalize AI into different real-world scenarios encountered during the ML training time, using specific volume and variety of data.

Meta-Learning techniques can be further differentiated into three categories –

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  • Metric-based ML
  • Model-based ML
  • Optimizer Meta-Learning

In each of these categories, there is a unique learner, meta-learner, and vectors with labels that match Data-Time-Spatial vectors into a set of networking processes to weigh real-world scenarios labeled with context and inferences.

All the recent Image Processing and Voice Search techniques use the Meta-Learning techniques for their outcomes.

#5 Adversarial Machine Learning

Adversarial ML is one of the fastest-growing and most sophisticated of all ML techniques. It is defined as the “ML technique adopted to test and validate the effectiveness of any Machine Learning program in an adverse situation.”

As the name suggests, it’s the antagonistic principle of genuine AI, but used nonetheless to test the veracity of any ML technique when it encounters a unique, adverse situation. It is mostly used to fool an ML model into doubting its own results, thereby leading to a malfunction.

#6 Causal Inference

Most ML models are capable of generating answer for one single parameter. But, can it be used to answer for ‘x’ (unknown or variable) parameter. That’s where the Causal Inference ML techniques comes into play.

Most AI ML courses online are teaching Causal inference as a core ML modeling technique. Causal inference ML technique is defined as the causal reasoning process to draw a unique conclusion based on the impact variables and conditions have on the outcome. This technique is further categorized into Observational ML and Interventional ML, depending on what is driving the Causal Inference algorithm.

#7 Deep Learning Interpretability

Also commercially popularized as Explainable AI (X AI), this technique involves the use of neural networking and interpretation models to make ML structures more easily understood by humans.

Deep Learning Interpretability is defined as the ML specialization to remove ‘black boxes’ in AI models, providing decision-makers and data officers to understand data modeling structures and legally permit the use of AI ML for general purposes.

The ML technique may use one or more of these techniques for Deep Learning Interpretation.

  • Model Tuning
  • Regression
  • Data Scoring
  • Supervised Machine Learning
  • Target Leakage
  • Target Variable
  • Text Mining

#9 Graph Neural Networks

Any data can be accurately plotted using graphs. In Machine Learning techniques, a graph is a data structure consisting of two components, Vertices (or nodes) and Edges.

Graph ML networks is a specialized ML technique used to connect problems with edges and graphs. Graph Neural Networks (NNs) give rise to the category of Connected NNs (CNSS) and AI NNs (ANN).

There are at least 50 more ML techniques that could be learned and deployed using various NN models and systems. Click here to know of the leading ML companies that are constantly transforming Data Science applications with AI ML techniques.

(To share your insights about ML techniques and commercial applications, please write to us at

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